Snow

 

alpine skiing   cross country skiing   ski jumping   freestyle

  

nordic combined   snowboard   biathlon

1. Skiing

The skiing includes the modalities of Nordic combined, alpine skiing, cross country skiing, freestyle, ski jumping and snowboarding.

The first indications of the existence of skiing date back to 2500 BC. The first one is an engraving in felspar stone which was discovered on the island of Rodódy (Norway) in which a hunter on skis is appreciated. There are also other as an image of a hunter among reindeers in Russia.

The first written text in which this activity is mentioned it is found 3000 years later, and in it, the Byzantine historian Procopius describes a run on snow. Moreover, in China there are written records that the Nordic peoples have hunted on wooden horses placed on the feet.

The skiing was born due to complications to move, trade, fight or hunt in areas where snow can accumulate consecutive months without melting.

Gradually Europeans were learning from their Norwegian neighbors and the early twentieth century, began to popularize skiing, largely by incorporating drag and chairlifts systems that allowed skiers uncomplicated go up to dimensions more the high snowcapped peaks, from which you could ski down.

Winter sports in Catalonia and Spain have over 100 years of history. The December 25, 1908 is the first official date of the beginning of skiing in Spain following the first skied in Rasos de Peguera.

Modalities

1.1 Nordic Combined

History

Norwegian skiers from 1800 each winter gathered to participate in a number of ski carnivals consisting of small athletic competitions combined with some entertainment.

It was regarded as the best of all athletes of this unique carnival, which was able to do better than the rest in both cross country skiing and ski jumping, the one who was able to combine better endurance, strength and technical control.

Men have competed in the Individual Nordic combined since the first edition of the Olympic Winter Games in 1924 in Chamonix (France). The team event was introduced in 1988 at the Games in Calgary (Canada). Today Olympic women’s events are not still celebrated.

Competition dynamics

The Nordic combined consist of two modalities, ski jumping and cross-country skiing. The goal is to get the highest score in the two tests. This modality respects the regulation that applies to each of the modalities to implement them.

Disciplines

The three disciplines of Nordic combined that the Olympic Winter Games host are:

Individual Gundersen Normal (NH) + 10 km

The competition starts with the ski jumps where each participant performs two jumps of 90 meters (K90), and the sum is the score of both. After this event it is hold the cross country skiing over 10 km freestyle. The starting order in this event is performed in accordance with the results of the jumps event. The first to reach the finish line is the winner.

Individual Gundersen Large (LH) + 10 km

It is similar to the normal event because the cross country event is also walking 10 km freestyle, although in this case the ski jump is 120 meters (K120). The winner is the one competitor before crossing the finish line as the starting order of the event is established from the classification of the ski jumping event.

Team Gundersen Length (LH) + 4 x 5 km relay

Each team consists of four members. In the first event each contestant performs two jumps on a 120 meters (K120) ski jump, and the score adds eight jumps. The second event of cross country is performed in the form of 4 x 5 km relay freestyle. This is equivalent to 5 km for each of the four skiers. As in the individual event the start is stepped. In the last phase the fourth rider of each team runs and wins who first crosses the finish line.

Technical Requirements

The Nordic combined modality follows the technical requirements for events of ski jumping and cross country skiing.

1.2 Alpine Skiing

History

The male and female alpine skiing has been part of the Winter Games since the 1936 Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany). Until then, only the slalom and downhill were practiced, but in 1952 at the Olympic Winter Games in Oslo (Norway) medals were awarded in a new discipline, the giant slalom. It was not until the Olympic Winter Games in Calgary (Canada) in 1988 that the supergiant joined the Olympic program.

Competition dynamics

Skiing is a ski descent in the shortest time possible following a winding route marked by gates. Its characteristics depend on the discipline practiced.

Disciplines

The Olympic program includes alpine skiing speed disciplines of downhill and Super G, the technical disciplines of giant slalom and slalom, and finally the super combined as the name suggests that combines both.

Downhill

Descent is the longest event and in its path the skiers reach the higher speeds in all disciplines of alpine skiing. The competition consists of three days. The first day is used to examine the track and the path. Competitors analyze the field slowly down the side of the path. It’s the second day when the runners are allowed to make a downhill training inside the path. This downhill is obligatory if they want to participate in the fall and is timed. Finally, on the third day the competition is held and the skier that makes the shortest time becomes event winner.

The event includes jumps and competitors can exceed 150 km / h.

Specific technical requirements

A downhill door has four slalom sticks, marked with two flags. Entire path is identified with gates and flags, usually red. In this discipline there is no collation of colors. However, if the color of safety nets is red, blue is used.

The width between the two flags of a gate should be at least 8 m. In total, the track must have a width of 30 m. All tracks must be protected with highly secure networks, especially in areas of jumps.

In this test there is a security system where yellow flags are used to alert dangers. These are placed along the route, according to the diversities of each path, and a person is responsible for lifting in case of an anomaly within the track. If a runner sees a yellow flag must be stopped immediately, and once the conditions are optimal and safe, he has the right to restart the downhill from the start.

Supergiant

The event of supergiant is a combination of speed downhill and accuracy necessary to plot curves in giant slalom. Each skier makes a downhill and the fastest time determines the winner.

Specific technical requirements

A supergiant door is formed by four sticks. Two sticks to set the flag marking the inside of the door assembly, and two sticks over the flag to mark the outer door. The distance between the inner and outer door must be a minimum of 6 m up to 8 m wide. The distance between the pivot posts of a door and another should be at least 25 m.

In this event the security system marked by yellow flags is also applied.

 

 

Giant Slalom

Giant slalom path requires tighter turns than the speed event because the distance between gates is reduced. During the day the skiers make two downloads for different paths. The test winner is the skier that gets, the shortest time adding the result of the two runs.

Specific technical requirements

In this discipline the distance between the inner and outer door must be a minimum of 4 m up to 8 m wide. The distance between the gates cannot be less than 10 m.

Slalom

The slalom is developed on the shortest path from all disciplines and turns are very tight requiring a special skill chaining the gates. The way to decide the winner is identical to the giant slalom. The skier makes two runs and the winner is who gets the shortest possible time adding the result of both descents.

Specific technical requirements

This is the only discipline where no flags are used to mark the gates. The slalom only uses two sticks to mark a door. The inner post marks the turn and the outside stick determines the maximum space that has the skier to make the turn. The minimum distance between the two poles of the same door is 4 m up to 6 m. However, the distance between the gates cannot be less than 6 m and not more than 13 m. The path alternates red and blue gates to distinguish the tour.

In this discipline the path contains double, triple or direct gates. In the case of double and triple gates these are placed vertically, leaving a small gap between them, which means that the skier has to make a shorter and faster turn than the rest of the plot. The distance between these gates not less than 0.75 m and not more than 1 m. Direct legs connect two gates, providing more distance than usual and a change of rate. The minimum distance between the two gates are 12 m and a maximum of 18 m. In total, the event should have at least one double or triple figure and a direct and a maximum of three.

Slalom poles that mark the path are screwed into the snow. Often they can jump, and along the race it must be check that all the poles are in place, and tighten them again if they have come out of the hole.

Like all disciplines, it is compulsory to wear a protective helmet approved. However, the slalom is the only discipline that allows using a headset with a light protection in the ears.

 

 

Super combination

The super combined is an event of contrasts where a descent is made by a downhill, where high speeds are taken, and after that there is a slalom descent, the most technical event. The two runs are performed on the same day and the winner is the competitor who obtains a sum of less time.

Specific technical requirements

This competition complies with the rules for the descent and slalom for test execution.

General technical requirements

CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS CIO / IPC / FIS Male Female
Downhill (DH) Grade 800 – 1100 m 450 – 800 m
Flags of gates 0,75 m width x 0,50 m height

opposed color to the security fences

Supergiant (SG) Grade 400 – 650 m 400 – 600 m
Flags of gates 0,75 m width x 0,50 m height

Red or blue

Number of changes in direction 6% minimum
Giant Slalom (GS) Grade 300 – 450 m 300 – 400 m
Flags of gates 0,75 m width x 0,50 m height

Red or blue

Number of changes in direction 11% – 15%
Slalom (SL) Grade 180 – 220 m 140 – 220 m
Number of changes in direction 30% – 35% (+/- 3)

 

In all disciplines of alpine skiing the use of helmet is mandatory. Only in slalom, you can use lighter helmets.

1.3 Cross-Country

History

It is believed that cross-country skiing can be a human activity that is at least 6,000 years old. At the beginning, the skiing was used in the Nordic countries as a means of transport. The skis allowed people to move from one place to another, and also were a means of subsistence, as people went hunting using skis.

The first Olympic Winter Games in history, Chamonix 1924, they welcomed the skiing events of male cross country with distances of 18 km and 50 km. The women’s events were five editions later, in the 1952 Oslo Games. The freestyle technique became a specific event for the Winter Games in Calgary in 1988.

Competition dynamics

Cross country skiing is to travel great distances with usually skis on uneven terrain, with slopes that can be strong but not continuous, and that requires good endurance. There are two techniques that allow progression on skis:

• Classical: the skis move parallel through tracks prepared by a snow machine that mark the route to follow.

• Freestyle (step skater or skating): allows any form of progression. Similar to speed skating free technique uses shorter skis and on average is about 8 % faster than the classic.

Disciplines

Men’s Skiathlon 15 km Classic + 15 km free / female 7.5 km + 7.5 km classic free

The skiathlon consists of two parts which both forward techniques are utilized. It is a mass start and halfway, athletes change both skis as canes, making the first part of the race with classic technique and the other half with free style. Women ski a total of 15 km (7.5 km + 7.5 km classic free) and men 30 km (15 km Classic + 15 km free). The first athlete to cross the finish line wins.

Specific technical requirements

Halfway of the competition, there is an area called area of ​​change. This is where the skiers change the skis. This area must be at least 6 m wide, to allow proper entry and exit to the change zone. Each runner has a space, identified with his bib number, where can exchange skis. Before starting the race all the necessary technical equipment must be placed in this space. The material is deposited in these boxes and cannot be touched until the event is completed. Five minutes before the start of the event, all coaches and service personnel should leave the area.

These safety systems are implemented to prevent changes during the competition which had not been programmed.

In this event the track should have a minimum of width 4 m in general and 9 m in ascents.

Classical style 15 km men / women 10 km

This discipline is performed according to the technique of classical style and women walking a total of 10 km, while men do so in 15 km. Every thirty seconds a competitor leaves the start line. The starting order is organized so that the best skiers out in the end. The winner is the skier who covered the distance in less time.

If two skiers arrive in the same position in the ranking the skier with the lowest dorsal appears first.

Specific technical requirements

In this competition, the minimum width of the tracks must be 6 m. The start area should be organized to accommodate from 2 to 5 lanes, and lane width between lanes must be at least 3 m. The finish line should also be wide, with a minimum of 9 m, divided into 3 lanes.

Mass start 50 km men / 30 km women

In the mass start all skiers start at the same time using the technique of classical style. A very wide track is needed in both start and raises. The women’s race is 30 km and 50 km male. The first athlete to cross the finish line is the winner of this race. Often the result is decided with the help of the photo finish, capturing the arrival and gives the details needed to determine which skier is at the head.

The mass start event was introduced at the Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City 2002.

Specific technical requirements

This is a competition where all skiers start simultaneously. This means that the start area has to be long and wide enough to allow the implementation of 100 athletes at the same time. The arrival line is usually preceded by a final climb, where skiers can produce the latest advances in the event. These moments produced great excitement in the stands of arrival.

Sprint relay classic style

The teams are made up of alternating two athletes during the race so that walking six laps in total, three each, following the technique of the classical style. Athletes must perform a correct transition between turns, consisting of touching their partner physically, without interfering or obstructing other teams. The winner is the first team to cross the finish line.

Specific technical requirements

The route of this event must include at least two climbs. The first should be a minimum of 20 m and 15 m the second. The difference of these increases should be around between 12% and 18%. Flat areas are also included, where most overtaking occurs. In the same way that the mass start, the arrival must have a final climb before reaching the finish line.

Men relay 4 x 10 km (2 classic + 2 freestyle) / Women 4 x 5 km (2 classic + 2 freestyle)

Teams will consist of four skiers. The first two parts of the relief are performed with classical technique and the last two, with freestyle. Female teams covering a total of 20 km, 5 km per skier , while men cover 40 km, 10 km per participant. The relay begins in a group output format where all teams lined up in rows. The winner is the first skier of the fourth stage of the relief crossing the finish line.

Specific technical requirements

In this competition each corridor is identified by a color. Within a team, the first runner wearing a red ribbon, the second green, the third yellow and the last blue. The tape is placed on the leg of skiers, and served to order.

To make the relay valid, the skier who is competing has to touch with his hand any part of the body relief skier. Any attempt to push the starting competitor is prohibited. The relay exchange zone is carried out in a rectangle 30 feet long and is wide enough, clearly marked and located on flat land.

In this event could be three athletes skiing side by side, which means that the track is 9 m wide uphill.

Free Sprint

In this event skiers follow freestyle. Cross-country skiing requires a hard physical training and a highly developed technique, and in the case of sprint athletes should demonstrate this potential in short distances. It is a competition that requires a qualification round where skiers go out in intervals of 15 seconds and must complete a route of 1.2 km women and 1.4 km men. Only the top thirty finalists in this qualifying round pass the elimination rounds.

Specific technical requirements

The track is the same for both qualifying and elimination rounds. The track should be designed width and length to allow overtaking.

As technical requirements for this discipline, it is advisable that the field is relatively flat, and that the first 100 meters on a straight track. In addition, the track must be sufficiently wide to allow 4 lanes along the entire race.

1.4 Freestyle

History

The 60s in the United States of America was a time of revolution in many ways. Young questioned the authority and required changes in many fields. Freestyle skiing began in this decade, when social change and freedom of expression led to new and exciting skiing techniques. Originally it was a mix of alpine skiing and acrobatics. The first competition of freestyle skiing was held in Attitash (USA) in 1966.

Competition dynamics

Freestyle skiing is a mode where skiers combine skill, spontaneity and creativity. These elements are judged to determine the winner of the race. Freestyle features vary, mostly depending on the discipline practiced.

Disciplines

Moguls

Participants must ski down a slope and pass a series of bumps. The goal is to ski down the track as fast as possible and make the two required jumps without technical errors or loss of balance.

In the bumpy track there are three paths. The athlete can choose in which of the three paths wants to make their descent. The track is bumpy and along the slope should be two jumps that can even reach 1.2 m, where the skier performs a maneuver of his choice. This can be a rotation of 360 º and 180 º, a loop, an axle jump, a forward or backward somersault or a turn. The jumps are usually placed one on top of the route, and the other in the end. Skiers can incorporate different ways to hold the legs or skis.

The judges score from rotation, the air and speed. The panel of judges who value the rotation consists of five people and represents 50 % of the score, with a maximum of 15 points. Two judges qualify the air and means 25% of the total with a number that can reach a maximum of 7.5 points. About time, it represents a 25 % of the total score and the maximum cut is at 7.5 points, the event is timed and it is used an equivalence conversion factor that translates the time in points. The minimum score is 0.0 points in the three cases, and the final score comes from the average of the three scores, taking into account the percentage that each represents.

Descending the bumps, skiers need to keep the upper body facing down the hill, while the lower body and skis are constantly turning.

All competitors participate in a qualifying round. The top 20 skiers advance to the final with the start list in reverse order of the qualification results. The skier with the highest score in the final round wins.

Specific technical requirements

The bumpy track must be at least 18 feet wide, a distance of 235 m (± 35 m) and a vertical drop of 110 m (± 30 m).

Aerials

This test involves doing acrobatic jumps. The jumps are made from snow or wood platforms, placed in the ground and covered with snow. During the jump, the professionals perform multiple figures, flips and twists before landing on the track. Athletes are judged on the quality of takeoff, the height reached, the shape and position of the body and how to maintain the balance on the landing. The skier that gets the best score is proclaimed the winner of the event.

In the same way than in bumps, the track has three entries in the jump, and the skier can choose which lane down before tackling the jump.

The judges evaluated the performance of the skier based on air criteria, form and landing. Air score represents 20 % of the total mark and this is a minimum of 0.0 to a maximum of 2.0 points. The way of turns is the most significant part, as it represents 50 % of the score, ranging from 0.0 to 5.0 points. Finally, the landing is 30% and the score is given from 0.0 to 3.0 points.

Specific technical requirements

The aerials track consists of few key areas: ramp jump, jumping, landing and arrival area. The jump must have a radius of 30 m and the jump to the landing area is a distance of 13 m. The landing area has a total length of 30 m, until reaching the finish area.

Ski Cross

This discipline was first Olympic in Vancouver 2010. A ski cross track implies curves, jumps and other elements on the ground. The objective of this event is to overcome all these items quickly to reach the finish line before all other competitors. It is a discipline with playoffs and before these and to decide the starting order, a single timed descend is done. At this point, in the playoffs four riders descend at the same time, until the end line. The gold medal goes for the competitor who wins the finals.

Specific technical requirements

The ski cross track must have a length of between 900 m and 1200 m. The altitude varies between 180 and 250 m.

In ski cross the gates that mark the route are triangular and alternate colors. The door dimensions are 130 cm wide, 110 cm on the long side and 40 cm on the short side of the triangle.

The features field will be developed in time to ensure that the snow has compacted properly. The day of the competition, riders have a total of 30 minutes before starting the event, to inspect the ground, slowly sliding down the side of the track.

Ski Halfpipe

This discipline was Olympic at the Olympic Winter Games 2014 held in the Russian city of Sochi. It consists of descending an artificial track semi shaped tube, skiing side by side for the track doing jumps and figures. The judges evaluated the evolution of athletes according to the degree of difficulty and execution. The winner of the race is determined from the valuation.

Specific technical requirements

The semi pipe should slope between 15 and 18 degrees. Length of 100 m will be 110 m, and the width shall between 13 m and 15 m. The wall will have a height of 3 m and 3.5 m and the flat area in the center of the half pipe shall not exceed 5 m.

The area of the judges should be at least 8 m by 3 m, to ensure a broad view of the entire event. It is a closed competitors and spectators area.

The start area must allow competitors to gain momentum, but cannot perform any maneuver. The landing area must be flat and allow the competitor must safely stop.

In a Halfpipe competition, there are five scoring judges plus a head judge.

Ski Slopestyle

Slopestyle is a discipline where skiers descend a track that includes different jumps and modules that require great adaptability of snowboarders, where the goal is to perform the most difficult tricks. What makes it different from other events is that there is no time to beat, but the athlete with the best score is proclaimed champion and wins the event.

Specific technical requirements

The average slope of a ski slopestyle skiing should be about 12 degrees and should be regular, not many variations. The track must be a minimum of 30 m wide and the length should be between 100 m and 200 m.

The track must contain at least three obstacles, whether jumps, boxes, fences … The distance between these elements should allow a smooth obstacle to properly link with the other transition. The course must be designed so that a minimum of 20 seconds late in arriving at the end, overcoming all obstacles.

The start area must be flat and wide enough to allow competitors to prepare for the competition, and also to ensure the work of the coaches, staff and media. Every track should be visible by the judges.

1.5 Ski Jumping

History

The first known ski jumper was a Norwegian lieutenant named Olaf Centeno. In 1809 the soldier was launched to an audience of other soldiers and rose 9.5 m in the air. In 1862 the first competition of the sport took place in the Norwegian town of Trysil. The Norwegian Sondre Norheim established one of the first records jumping a distance of 30 m over a rock without using sticks.

The desire to jump further led to a radical new development. In 1985 he moved from the position of the skis parallel to the adoption of the position of the skis in V during the flight phase of the jump. The first jumper who used this new technique was the Swede Jan Boklöv. This innovation was mocked and criticized, and the jumper was penalized for his unorthodox style. Finally, sports science found that with the technique Boklöv (the style in V) achieved 28% more lift in the jump.

Male ski jumps are part of the program of the Olympic Winter Games since the first Games in Chamonix in 1924. Competition in the long trampoline joined the program in Innsbruck Games in 1964. Women have taken much time to join in this mode, making it possible at Vancouver 2010.

Competition dynamics

The ski jumping is a winter Olympic sport which consists of a jump from a ski jump by a skier. Skiers can get above 100 km per hour before takeoff. The technique is an integral part of the ski jump, and is the key to enable athletes to make a very precise takeoff. Once in the air, the skier takes the position in V and put his body to maximize the rise and minimize drag. Competitors are judged on the distance obtained and the style employed, and while there is a close relationship between both, often the skier with the longest jump is who gets the highest score style. An exception to this fact can be found in the landing phase of the jump, the quality of landing can be a determining factor to decide the final position, in which the distances are similar. All these elements serve to determine the final score and name the winner of the event.

Disciplines

The program of the Olympic Winter Games includes individual and team events on the normal hill (Normal Hill) and long ski jump (Large Hill):

Normal Hill Individual (NH)

It is the only event of jumps performed on the normal hill, which has a K-point (point of construction that determines the size of the ski jump and the point estimate for the distance achieved) between 75 and 99 meters. Each jumper performed two attempts, being proclaimed winner who gets the highest score. It is the only women’s event within the Olympic ski jumps.

There are two rounds of jumps. The first round involves 50 jumpers, only the top 30 advance to the final round. The starting order for the second round of the competition is inversely proportional to the classification in the first round, so the best jumpers compete at the end.

Individual normal hill competition is the first to be held during the celebration of the ski jumps.

Specific technical requirements

Olympic requirement of this event is that the point-K ski jump is 85 m.

Large Hill (LH)

This competition takes place over the long ski jump, which has a K-point greater than 100 m. Each jumper has two attempts; the victory is for the athlete that gets the highest score.

At the Olympics the difference between normal and long ski jumps should always be a minimum of 25 m. To ensure equal opportunities, both ski jumps must be closed 14 days before the first day of training games.

The rating system is the same as in the normal hill, following the qualifying rounds.

Specific technical requirements

The requirements of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) are that the trampoline has a K-point minimum of 109 m.

Large Hill Team (LH)

This event is performed on the long ski jump. Each team consists of four athletes and competition takes place in two rounds. In the first round a skier from each team jumps from the ski jump. In the second round, another skier jumps from each team, and so on, until they do all four.

In the second round, only the top eight teams pass the first round of the competition. As in the individual events, the Jumpers with the most unfavorable results first jump in the second round, and the best jumpers will do it in the end. The team with the highest total score by adding the scores of the eight jumps executed wins the event.

Specific technical requirements

The sequence of skiers of each team is determined by a specific color. Group one with color red. The two is the green group, three yellow and finally, the fourth group identifies with the blue.

Ski jumps requirements established by the IOC are that the K – point is a minimum of 109m.

1.6 Snowboard

History

Snowboarding is one of the most growing sports, and one of the most recent sports to be added to the Winter Olympics. The first official snowboard competition was held in Colorado (USA) in 1981. The events of snowboard halfpipe and individual giant slalom were introduced in Winter Games in Nagano (Japan) in 1998. Parallel giant slalom replaced the Single giant slalom at the Games in 2002 Salt Lake City and the snowboard cross was introduced in 2006,  in the Olympic Winter Games in Turin (Italy). In recent Winter Games Sochi 2014 Russia the snowboard slopestyle discipline was incorporated.

Competition dynamics

Snowboarding is a modality that involves descending a snow surface with a snowboard. The objectives are based on the type of event. In some of them the key is to descend as quickly as possible following a path marked by doors, where there also must be overcome paths with different modules and at other times it has to perform tricks to get the best score.

Disciplines

Parallel Giant Slalom

These are two identical symmetrically marked paths that allow two runners down at the same time, each by a path. The giant slalom style is characterized by a greater distance between the doors regarding the slalom. The winner of each round moves to the next qualifying round to reach the final round, where the winner of the competition will be announced.

Specific technical requirements

For this competition the technical requirements are that the track has a vertical drop of between 120 m and 200 m, length between 400 m and 700 m (it is recommended to be about 550 m) and a track width of 40 m. The route must have a minimum of 18 gates, although it is advisable to use 25, always separated by a horizontal distance of 20 m – 25 m.

Parallel Slalom

It is very similar to the parallel giant slalom with the only difference that in this case, the discipline with which it competes is the slalom. The distance between the doors symmetrically drawn is lower, leading to a larger number of bends and a closed path. The winner of this discipline is decided by the same method of overcoming the giant slalom rounds parallel.

Specific technical requirements

The technical requirements of the track are the same as the parallel giant slalom.

 

 

 

Snowboard Cross

Runners make a start in groups of four or six, depending on the race, beating curves, jumps, dubbies and mandatory doors in order to get the first goal. It is a system of elimination rounds to reach the final.

Specific technical requirements

The track must have a vertical drop of 100 m and 240 m, a length between 500 m and 900 m, a width of at least 40 m and optimum slope between 14 º and 18 º.

Snowboard Halfpipe

This Olympic sport consists of descending a track that is semi shaped tube, taking off from side to side and making a series of jumps, tricks and maneuvers that will be judged on execution and difficulty. The winner of the test comes out of the total score by the judges designated.

Specific technical requirements

The halfpipe pipe should slope between 15 ° and 20 °. Experts recommend building it with an inclination of 18 º. The pipe length should be between 100 m and 120 m, and the width of the track must be of 13 m to 17 m. The halfpipe slope should be between 24.20 m and 43.26 m although the figure of 33 m is optimal.

Snowboard Slopestyle

It consists of down a track designed especially including various jumps and modules that require great adaptability from snowboarders, where the goal is to perform the most difficult tricks. There is no time to beat, but the athlete with the best score of the event is proclaimed the winner.

Specific technical requirements

The ski slopestyle should slope about 12 °, a width of at least 30 m and a vertical drop of 100 m and 200 m.

The start area must be sufficiently wide, flat surface to allow adequate preparation of competitors. In addition, coaches, staff and media equipment must be able to work with optimal conditions. The arrival should be designed leaving enough space to stop, and the entire route of the track must be visible to ensure full terrain visualization by judges.

 

Biathlon

History

The background of this combined activity dates back 2000 years BC when the northern European hunters had to travel through the snow to hunt. From the mid-sixteenth century, however, the Scandinavian countries began to equip their armies with skis, to defend against its enemies.

The first Biathlon World Championships were held in 1958 in Saalfelden (Austria). The biathlon became an Olympic sport for men only, at the Olympic Winter Games in Squaw Valley (USA) 1960. Women joined the Olympic Games thirty years later, in 1992, in Games Albertville (France).

Competition dynamics

Biathlon is a sport that combines cross country skiing with shooting. The objective is to complete the biathlon course in the shortest time possible, and get the maximum number of targets with shooting to avoid the time penalty of errors. In biathlon the part of ski requires fast and it is physically very demanding, while the rifle shooting requires precision and control.

Participants move through a course and complete a certain distance, depending on the event, and stop at the shooting area, where they must make five shots at five targets of metal, located fifty meters away. Depending on the position of the athlete when shoots (lying or standing) the target size changes. Lying is the size of a golf ball (45 mm) and standing, however, is the size of a large orange (115 mm). A top athlete usually requires between 20 and 25 seconds to aim and shoot five bullets. According to the case, a missed shot carries a penalty of one minute of added time or complete a supplementary travel 150 meters every mistake.

Disciplines

Men Sprint 10 km / Women 7,5 km

In this discipline competitors go out every 30 seconds. All competitors must stop twice at the shooting range for five shots. In this event, if an athlete misses a shot, for every missed shot, gives a complementary lap in a space of 150 meters. The women’s race is a distance of 7.5 km and for men is 10 km. The athlete with the lowest time, including extras runs through suspension, is the winner of the event.

In this test, as in all, is very important the shot, but in this case the speed is essential. For an Olympic skier to complete an extra lap 150 m penalty takes between 20 and 26 seconds.

Individual Men 20 km / Women 15 km

The competitors go out one by one every 30 seconds. Throughout the event, competitors stop four times on the shooting range for five shots. For every missed shot the athlete is penalized increasing a minute his final time. It is the only discipline where a minute is added directly to the final time. The winner of the event, taking into account any penalties, is the athlete with less final time.

This is the longest of all the biathlon competition.

Pursuit Men 12,5 km / Women 10 km

The top sixty of sprint qualifies for participating in the event of pursuit, which is to pursue the winner of the sprint test. First to go out is the winner of the previous event and consecutively go out other runners separated by time intervals derived from the mark obtained in the previous sprint event. The women’s race is 10 km and men 12.5 km. All competitors pass four times for the range, where they perform five shots. Every missed shot requires making an extra trip of 150 meters. The winner is the first to cross the finish line.

Mass Start Men 15 km / Women 12,5 km

In this event, thirty competitors coming out all at once and have to stop four times in the range, for each time do five shots. If an athlete misses a shot, should do a penalty lap of 150 meters. The first athlete to cross the finish line is the winner.

In the first shot, competitors shoot at the range according to their race number. That is, each competitor will look at the box shot that corresponds to their number. After the second shot, competitors shoot in the order of arrival to the shooting, standing on the first shooting lane available to the right.

Relay Men 4 x 7,5 km  / Women 4 x 6 km

In this event there is a competition for teams of four athletes. Each piece of equipment skiing 7.5 km (men) and 6 km (women), and each reliever stops twice in the range. In this test each athlete has three extra bullets, apart from the usual five, and as in other events of biathlon, if an athlete misses a shot must complete a penalty lap of 150 meters.

Due to intense pressure involving relays, the competitor must shoot very fast, hit and then be able to get out quickly from the shooting area. Every time they go in this area, they have to hit five targets with bullets that are already inside the charger, but if an athlete needs to use the extra, they must be loaded individually, which is losing more time and the difficulty that the pressure means.

In the same manner as in the mass start, shot rails of the first round are defined by dorsal number, but from the second round, the skier uses the first free running lane, in the order of arrival.

The athletes are identified by color. The first skier is identified with the color red, the second green, the third yellow and the last competitor with blue.

General technical requirements

Biathlon events can be held at a maximum altitude of 1800 m above sea level. Circuits must be 4 km long and have a width of 8 m. The shooting range must have a length of 90 m and a width of 50. Slope never exceeds 30 %.

All shots were made ​​within the shooting area. Once the gun leaves the stage, must be protected within a deck.

In the individual events and the sprint, the competitors can choose the firing line they want, all are prepared. In the disciplines of pursuit and mass start, competitors in the first shot must be designated by the number of dorsal. In the second round, should enter sequentially in the lines of shooting, regardless of the dorsal.

The biathletes can choose the position to take the shot. In the extended position, the rifle can only be in contact with the hands, shoulder and cheek, and the rifle cannot touch the ground. When the competitor shoots standing cannot help with any support, only his chest or hip.

Competitors are prohibited from taking your skis for the execution of the shot